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iStock/Thinkstock(HONOLULU) -- With Hawaii poised to become the first state to raise the legal smoking age to 21, experts say it might just be a game-changer.

The bill prohibits the sale of tobacco products to people under 21 years old, and includes fines for underage smokers and even heftier fines for anyone who buys or sells tobacco products an underage person.

"It's important to understand that virtually no one who smokes starts smoking after the age of 21," said Lawrence Steinberg, a psychology professor at Temple University and author of Age of Opportunity: Lessons From the New Science of Adolescence. "If you're going to smoke, you start when you're an adolescent. Almost nobody takes it up for the first time as an adult."

Steinberg said raising the smoking age to 21 fits with a recent Institute of Medicine report requested by the Food and Drug Administration, in which a panel of experts reviewed the medical literature and weighed raising the smoking age to 19, 21 or 25. They found that raising the legal age of buying tobacco products to 21 would be the most effective, reducing the number of smokers by 12 percent by the year 2100.

Hawaii's bill should be effective because most people start smoking at 14 or 15 years old, when their brains are more susceptible to becoming addicted to tobacco, Steinberg said.

While adolescents are already a few years under the current legal smoking age of 18, he said they have access to cigarettes because 18-year-olds attend high school with them.

"If you raise the age to 21, that's not going to happen so easily," he said. "There aren't that many 21-year-olds that hang around with 14-, 15-year-olds."

On top of that, people who sell cigarettes may have a harder time telling the difference between a 14-year-old and an 18-year-old, but it's tougher to tell the difference between a 14-year-old and a 21-year-old, he said.

"If can keep people who are 14 and 15 from smoking, you're going to keep a large number of people from ever picking up the habit," he said.

New York City and surrounding areas have already raised the legal smoking age to 21, but it's too soon to say whether it has been successful, said smoking cessation expert Patricia Folan, who directs the Center for Tobacco Control at North Shore-LIJ Health System in Great Neck, New York. She, too, cited the IOM report as proof that raising the age seems to be a positive move, nothing that the panel concluded that doing so would result in 223,000 fewer premature deaths among people born between 2000 and 2019.

"I think that's such an important statistic," she said, adding that the New York City area has already curbed teen smoking significantly by raising taxes on cigarettes and prohibiting smoking in certain public areas.

Although there are researchers who have argued for years that the legal drinking age should be lowered to prevent a culture of binge drinking, Steinberg said smoking and drinking are not the same.

"I think smoking and drinking are two different things. There is essentially no safe way to smoke, and as far as we know, there are safe ways to drink," Steinberg said. "I think people in public health for the most part almost exclusively want people to not smoke cigarettes."

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VStock/Thinkstock(CAMBRIDGE, Mass.) -- A team of Harvard Business School professors have scientifically proven what you probably already knew: People loathe and despise the humblebrag.

The humblebrag is a self-compliment wrapped in a complaint, the authors say in their new Harvard Business School paper.

In the humblebragger’s attempt to come off as sincere and authentic, they appear immodest and frankly, less attractive, the authors suggest in their report.

In the paper, Harvard Business School professors Francesca Gino, Michael I. Norton and Ovul Sezer, performed a series of experiments to test people’s perceptions of the humblebrag.

In one test they asked their subjects to imagine the person who said one of three statements. One statement was a flat out boast (People mistake me for a model.) One was a whiney complaint (I’m so bored.) And the last was the hybrid humblebrag (I’m so bored of people mistaking me for a model.)

When the team asked more than 300 subjects to judge a person based on each statement, they liked the complainers the best and the humblebraggers the least. Complainers were also perceived as the most sincere, while humblebraggers as inauthentic and obnoxious.

In another experiment, people either read a brag (“I get hit on all the time”) or a humblebrag (“Just rolled out of bed and still get hit on all the time, so annoying.”) More than 200 subjects rated the humblebraggers as less attractive than the braggarts -- 4.34 on a scale of 7 compared to 4.91.

The act of humblebragging has undoubtedly been with us since the dawn of time but the term was only coined in 2012 by Parks and Recreation writer Harris Wittles who died earlier this year. Wittles’ @humblebrag Twitter account lives on with 245,000 followers.

It’s loaded with gems like this classic from actress Olivia Munn: “Why can't I look cool when I meet @TomHanks & he hands me his Emmy? Instead I get so excited & look like a goober…”

And this one from country singer Cody Alan: "I just won an ACM, but don't worry I'm still stuck like everyone else in a Taco Bell drive-thru right now. @ACMAwards #ACMs”

The moral? If you’re fishing for a compliment, trying to disguise it will only backfire, the Harvard paper concluded. Let your swagger shine though.

The paper said "our results show, people readily denigrate humblebraggers. Faced with the choice to (honestly) brag or (deceptively) humblebrag, would-be self-promoters should choose the former -- and at least reap the rewards of seeming sincere."

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Danny's Warriors/Facebook(NEW YORK) — A 6-year-old boy whose request for birthday cards went viral has died after an 18-month battle with brain cancer.

Danny Nickerson died earlier this month due to complications from diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. He had been diagnosed in October 2013 with the disease, which is one of the most chemotherapy-resistant cancers.

Danny's mother, Carley Nickerson, announced that the boy had died on the family's Facebook page last week.

"My precious sweet boy earned his angel wings earlier this afternoon after a courageous 18 month battle," Nickerson wrote. "Our lord came and carried his body to heaven. His body was so tired of fighting. He is now cancer free and running and playing and laughing with God and all of the other precious children."

Danny became famous last year after his birthday wish went viral. Already battling brain cancer for months, the boy's wish for this sixth birthday was to get cards from all over the world.

Danny's mom started to spread the word on social media and the request eventually went viral. The family received tens of thousands of cards in the months leading up to Danny's birthday. Even as the boy underwent treatment, a total of 33 radiation treatments and two clinical trials of chemotherapy, the family kept receiving cards.

On Danny's sixth birthday he was able to visit his local post office, where nearly 100,000 cards had been sent. The boy had so much mail he was able to climb on top of boxes with letters.

The family was also gifted with a special trip to Legoland and a meeting with New England Patriots Owner Bob Kraft.

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ABC/Ida Mae Astute(NEW YORK) — Jennifer Lopez wants to whip you into shape. The svelte singer, actress and American Idol judge has launched a nationwide 10-week weight loss challenge that gives participants the chance to get healthy and potentially win a trip to New York City to meet her in person.

The #BeTheGirl Challenge is sponsored by Jennifer’s BodyLab, a line of health and fitness formulas made especially for women. With Jennifer as their inspiration, participants are invited to kick-start their health and fitness goals. They’ll receive easy recipes, personalized fitness plans and nutritional advice from J.Lo and a team of experts.

“I’m asking the women of America to join me this spring in the #BeTheGirl challenge so together we can work, motivate and empower each other to be the best version of ourselves,” Jennifer said in statement. “When I eat, you eat. When I sweat, you sweat. When I run, you run. Let's kick start a healthy lifestyle together with the BodyLab line of products, free app and online tools.”

The five most successful participants at the end of the 10 weeks will win the #BeTheGirl in NYC prize package, which includes a stay at one of Jennifer’s favorite hotels, a spa treatment and a chance to meet Jenny from the block herself.

You can sign up now on the BodyLab website, www.BodyLab.com. Enrollment ends on May 26.

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iStock/Thinkstock(BOSTON) — There is a very real link between psychological stress and irritable bowel syndrome, doctors acknowledge. That’s why people who suffer from the pain, diarrhea and constipation associated with the syndrome often get a referral to a psychologist.

“Anxiety and other thoughts can trigger symptoms of IBS,” noted Jeffrey Brown, a cognitive-behavioral psychologist with the department of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. “It’s truly a representation of the mind-body connection.”

While the specific cause of IBS is unknown, it seems the nerves and muscles that control the bowel are to blame, according to the International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders. Symptoms may result from a disturbance in the way the gut, brain and nervous system interact. Stress does not cause the condition but it can make it worse, the foundation's website said.

Approximately 15 percent of the population in the U.S. suffers from IBS, the foundation estimates. Women are 1.5 times more likely than men to be diagnosed with the condition. It accounts for between 20 percent and 40 percent of all visits to the gastroenterologist, the type of specialty doctor that diagnoses and treats the syndrome with medications.

Brown said IBS is often a diagnosis of last resort after everything from cancer to intestinal blockage has been ruled out. And psychological treatment of any kind is often the last stop after years of suffering for many people, he said.

There is no cure for IBS and, while there are few studies comparing cognitive behavioral therapy, or CBT, to other forms of treatment, including antidepressants, which doctors sometimes prescribe to their IBS patients, Brown said it works by challenging the negative thought patterns to alter unwanted behavior and emotional patterns often associated with IBS.

“You might start by staying out a little longer to test your belief that you can’t leave home without getting into trouble,” Brown said. “Gradually you extend those periods of time out until you start to realize you can do it.”

Altering thought patterns can help someone accept they have a problem, said Brown, who has counseled many IBS patients in his practice. If someone has a sudden attack of diarrhea while out shopping, therapy can give them the psychological tools they need to keep calm and manage their reaction, he added.

“IBS can be unpredictable and you can’t always change it but you can change how you approach it psychologically," Brown said. "It isn’t pleasant but it doesn’t have to be the end of the world either."

IBS has been called the number one health problem no one wants to talk about. Well, Tuesday the ABC News health team, along with experts, advocates and patients from all over the country, are starting a conversation about this condition in the form of a tweet chat.

Please join us today for this chat to learn everything you need to know about IBS, including symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. Finding and joining the chat on Twitter is easy. Here’s how.

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Fuse/Thinkstock(COLLEGE STATION, Texas) — Kids who can't stand school might do better if they stand up in class to answer a question.

Scientists at Texas A&M University looked at the behavior of 300 second-, third- and fourth-grade students and reported a 12 percent increase in academic behavioral engagement when they used a standing desk.

Overall, it meant seven more minutes of learning per hour than youngsters who remained seated.

Texas A&M associate professor Mark Benden says that standing apparently compels children to better focus their energies on the task at hand.

Brenden has long been an advocate of standing desks because of their value in battling childhood obesity.

On average, students burned 15 percent more calories per hour than those who sit while obese children particularly benefited by burning off 25 percent more calories.

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) — If you were told a piece of food on your plate was made by a 3D printer, would you eat it?

The Chubb Group of Insurance Companies posed that question in its 2015 Consumer Perceptions of Business Risk Survey and the answer was an underwhelming 23 percent as compared to how people felt about other three dimensional solid objects made from a digital file.

Respondents were more receptive to a prosthetic limb with 77 percent saying they could see themselves using it if they needed an arm, leg or hand.

Meanwhile, 64 percent would consider wearing shoes or clothing that came from a 3D printer, 58 percent wouldn't reject an automotive part and 51 percent might even live in a printer-made house, if such a thing was possible.

Only eight percent said they wouldn't use anything at all that came from a 3D printer.

Nevertheless, while more and more people embrace technological breakthroughs, over six in ten admitted being extremely or very concerned about the safety of 3D materials and 54 percent were extremely or very concerned about their durability and performance.

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decade3d/iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- Researchers are looking into whether the volume of a person's left atria may be correlated in some way with strokes.

According to a study published in the Journal of the American Heart Association, scientists looked at 169 patients with a regular heart rhythm and a history of atrial fibrillation. Those patients underwent a cardiac MRI before undergoing a procedure that would prevent their heart rhythms from becoming irregular again.

Those patients with a history of stroke, researchers found, had left atria that were larger in volume, but did not pump as well. The left atrium is one of the chambers of the heart where clots are known to form.

It was not determined definitively whether the measurements in patients' left atria could in any way predict future strokes. The measurements simply correlated to past strokes.

Nonetheless, researchers hope that future studies could examine whether similar tests could be done to predict or help detect risk of future strokes.

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MARK BRAZIER/iStock/Thinkstock(LONDON) -- The first approved HIV self-test kit is on sale in the United Kingdom.

BBC News reports that the kits do not need to be sent to a lab for results; with a small drop of the patient's blood, the kit can detect antibodies that signal the presence of HIV. The antibodies, BBC News notes, are only detectable three months after the infection is contracted.

Experts are asking for any positive tests using the kit to be confirmed at clinics.

Bio Sure UK, the company that produces the test kits, notes that up to 30 percent of people with HIV are undiagnosed, according to estimates. It adds that that group of undiagnosed individuals accounts for "at least two-thirds of all HIV transmission."

The kits are meant to work similarly to a pregnancy test.

Bio Sure UK hopes that the ability for early diagnosis will allow those with HIV to get treatment quickly and prevent the more serious complications.

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Rachelle and Chris Chapman with their new baby, Kaylee Rae. Rachelle Chapman(KNIGHTDALE, N.C.) -- Rachelle Friedman Chapman was paralyzed when a bridesmaid playfully pushed her into a pool at her bachelorette party five years ago, causing irreversible damage to her spinal cord.

But now, thanks to a surrogate, she's a new mom. Kaylee Rae Chapman was born at 10:48 a.m. Sunday, weighing 7 pounds, 11 ounces, Chapman told ABC News.

Even though Chapman knew the baby was on its way, because she wasn't the one who was pregnant, the birth was a bit of a shock, Chapman told ABC News, adding that she'd been up since 4 a.m. "Then, all of the sudden, boom. There's a baby."

Chapman, 29, injured her sixth vertebrae in the accident in 2010, making her a quadriplegic. She said she still has the use of her shoulders and arms, but she lacks dexterity in her fingers. So, Chapman will be able to hold Kaylee, but changing her diapers and clothing her will be a learning experience.

"Not a matter of if, it's a matter of when," Chapman said.

Chapman met Laurel Humes, who carried Kaylee for nine months, back in 2004 at East Carolina University, where she also met her husband, Chris. The two clicked, but didn't stay in touch.

Then, Humes saw Chapman's blog post about wanting to have a baby through a surrogate because her spinal cord injury left her with low blood pressure. The blood pressure medication could hurt a developing fetus, but forgoing the medicine could be dangerous, too. Then, "out of the blue" Humes sent Chapman a message that she'd been thinking about surrogacy.

Humes lives a few hours away, but the Chapmans visited her for milestone doctors' appointments, like hearing the baby's heartbeat for the first time. On Sunday morning, she went into labor. Three hours later, Kaylee was born.

"Laurel did amazing and is resting after some hard work," Chapman told her Facebook followers. "Thank you for the most beautiful gift we will ever receive!"

And Chapman said they wouldn't have Kaylee without the organization Surrogacy Together, a group that works to make surrogate pregnancies more affordable, and donations from their GoFundMe page.

They will probably head home to Knightdale, North Carolina, on Tuesday, where Kaylee can meet her furry siblings, dogs Peedee and Roger.


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James Gathany/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(NEW YORK) -- The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said Monday that a microneedle patch currently being developed could be a major advancement in the effort to vaccinate people against measles and other diseases.

The patch, being developed by the CDC and the Georgia Institute of Technology, is designed to be administered by workers with minimal training. It would also simplify storage, distribution and disposal, as compared to traditional vaccines.

A CDC press release said the square centimeter patch could be administered with the press of a thumb. The underside of the patch contains 100 "solid, conical microneedles made of polymer, sugar, and vaccine that are a fraction of a millimeter long."

The CDC says that when applied, the microneedles press into the skin and dissolve within minutes, releasing the vaccine. Afterward, the patch can be discarded.

"Every day, 400 children are killed by measles complications worldwide," said James Goodson, epidemiologist from the CDC's Global Immunization Division. "With no needles, syringes, sterile water or sharps disposals needed, the microneedle patch offers great hope of a new tool to reach the world's children faster, even in the most remote areas."

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services on Monday announced a final recommendation for optimal levels of fluoride in drinking water -- lowering the recommendation to 0.7 milligrams per liter, the low end of the previous recommendation issued in 1962.

The department says in a press release the change was made "because Americans now have access to more sources of fluoride, such as toothpaste and mouth rinses, than they did when water fluoridation was first introduced in the United States." As a result, Americans have seen an increase in dental fluorosis -- a condition that manifests as lacy white markings or spots on the enamel of the teeth.

"While additional sources of fluoride are more widely used than they were in 1962," U.S. Deputy Surgeon General Rear Adm. Boris Lushniak said, "the need for community water fluoridation still continues."

By fluoridating water, Lushniak says the U.S. has reduced tooth decay in its citizens well beyond the level that could be achieved using only toothpaste and other fluoride products.

"Community water fluoridation is effective, inexpensive and does not depend on access or availability of professional services," Lushniak noted. "It has been the basis for the primary prevention of tooth decay for nearly 70 years."

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration sent a letter to bottled water manufacturers on Monday saying that they too should lower the fluoride levels in their products.

In a statement, the American Academy of Pediatrics supported the DHHS decision. "Water fluoridation continues to be one of the most important tools in our toolbox to prevent tooth decay," said AAP President Sandra Hassink, while acknowledging that limiting water fluoridation to the level recommended Monday would limit the risk of children to develop fluorosis.

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- American women put an average of 168 chemicals on their bodies each day, according to a nonprofit group, but two senators say federal regulations on personal care products have barely changed since the 1930s.

Sens. Dianne Feinstein, D-Calif., and Susan Collins, R-Maine, introduced an amendment to the federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act that would give the Food and Drug Administration more power and oversight to regulate the chemicals men and women slather on their bodies every day. They're calling it the Personal Care Products Safety Act.

"From shampoo to lotion, the use of personal care products is widespread, however, there are very few protections in place to ensure their safety," Feinstein said in a statement.

The 98-page bill includes a system of registering personal care companies, their products and their ingredients, and it would require the FDA to review five chemicals that appear generally in personal care products each year to evaluate their safety. The first set of chemicals will likely be diazolidinyl urea, lead acetate, methylene glycol/formaldehyde, propyl paraben and quaternium-15, according to Feinstein’s office.

The senators worked with the Environmental Working Group, a nonprofit consumer health advocacy group that started the Skin Deep database about a decade ago. The Skin Deep database allows consumers to look up personal care products to learn what chemicals they contain, and whether those chemicals are associated with any health risks.

"These are basic tools that should have been granted to the FDA decades ago, but are only now being provided in the Feinstein-Collins bill," said Scott Faber, Environmental Working Group's vice president of government affairs. "Cosmetics are sort of the last unregulated area of consumer products law. I can't overstate how little law is now on the books. The FDA virtually has no power to regulate the products we use everyday."

According to the Environmental Working Group, women use an average of 12 products a day, containing 168 different chemicals. Men use fewer products, but still put 85 chemicals on their bodies. Teens on average use 17 personal care products a day, according to the group, which tested 20 teens' blood and urine seven years ago to find out which chemicals from these products were ending up in their bodies. They said they found 16 hormone-altering chemicals, including parabens and phthalates.

"Many if not most of these chemicals are probably safe," Farber said. "We can't know for sure because they haven't been subject to any kind of review by a third party."

Farber said attempts to give the FDA more authority over cosmetics date back to the Eisenhower administration, but they were unsuccessful. This time, industry leaders including Johnson and Johnson, Revlon and Personal Care Products Council, the industry trade group, have come out to say they support the bill.

"While we believe our products are the safest category that FDA regulates, we also believe well-crafted, science-based reforms will enhance industry's ability to innovate and further strengthen consumer confidence in the products they trust and use every day," the Personal Care Products Council said in a statement. "The current patchwork regulatory approach with varying state bills does not achieve this goal."

The FDA said it cannot comment on proposed legislation.

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- Broccoli has long been considered a “super food” but it’s sulforaphane -- a concentrated form of the phytochemicals found in broccoli sprouts -- that’s shaping up to be the true disease fighter.

A new British study found the compound might be an effective treatment for osteoarthritis, a debilitating condition characterized by inflamed, painful joints. Mice given an artificial version of the compound showed significantly improved bone architecture, gait balance and movement, researchers from the Royal Veterinary College in London reported at an International Bone and Mineral Society meeting in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, this week.

Meanwhile, studies looking at the supplement for treating and preventing cancer are also promising, said Duxin Sun, a pharmaceutical researcher at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.

“We have shown that it may stop the growth of cancer stem cells to inhibit the growth of onco genes and may also induce the production of detox enzymes to prevent cancer,” Sun told ABC News.

Sun stressed that virtually all the trials looking at sulforaphane’s role in fighting cancer have been done on animals. It’s too soon to say whether humans will get the same benefits, though preliminary results are exciting, he said.

Studies are also looking at using sulforaphane to treat autism, a spectrum of disorders that now affects one in 68 children in the U.S., according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

In one small study last year, a group of autistic boys given a sulforaphane supplements showed dramatic improvements in behavior, said Dr. Andrew Zimmerman, one of the study’s lead researchers and a pediatric neurologist with the Kennedy Krieger Institute in Maryland.

“Out of the 44 given the compound, 26 were calmer and more socially relateable while receiving the sulforaphane,” he said, adding that the benefits disappeared once the subjects stopped taking the pill.

The chemical might mimic some of the symptoms of fever by stimulating a heat shock response in cells, Zimmerman said. This might push the oxygen-producing parts of the cells called mitochondria to perform at a higher level.

Parents of autistic children frequently report their behavior improves when they are sick with fever, Zimmerman said.

However, Zimmerman said he cautioned parents not to rush out and buy sulforaphane supplements, which are unregulated by any governmental agency. The osteoarthritis study found the compound too unstable, at this point, to be turned into a viable medication.

As for consuming the tree-like veggie to get a full dose of the chemical, the arthritis study found it would take about 5.5 pounds of broccoli to get the same amount of the compound contained in a pill.

Sun said it would take a lot of broccoli sprouts to offer some protection against cancer, as well, but consumers might be able to maximize the compound with cooking methods.

Steaming broccoli sprouts and then dicing in fresh radish has been shown to produce the highest levels of sulforaphane, he noted.

“It’s something I eat, myself, all the time,” he said.

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- Plenty of travelers plan to shed a few pounds before their summer trips, but that necessary evil -- the airport -- is filled with potential pitfalls for derailing your diet just as you embark on your beach vacation.

So what's a hungry summer flier to do?

Most importantly, eat your typical, healthy meal before you leave for the airport. That's your first line of defense for avoiding a food court filled with high-fat, high-calorie fast food.

Brooke Alpert, a nutrition expert an author of The Sugar Detox: Lose Weight, Feel Great and Look Years Younger, specifically focuses on meeting the demands of her clients' busy schedules, teaching them to eat well without feeling deprived. She shared with ABC News her top tips for staying healthy at the airport.

  1. Don't sit and wait. You're about to be sitting for a flight so before you board, don't sit while you wait. Walk, walk and walk.
  2. Always invest in water once you've gone through security. Nothing makes you more likely to make a poor choice than dehydration.
  3. Don't purchase anything to eat that you wouldn't get on a normal non-travel day. Indulge when it's worth it, not on a pack of Skittles.
  4. Smoothies can be your salvation. So many airports have a Smoothie King, get the one with Greek yogurt and you have a satisfying protein filled yummy meal.
  5. If you're sweet tooth is calling, opt for plain dark chocolate. It's your healthiest option and pretty much guilt-free as long as you don't eat the whole bar.
  6. Don't be fooled by dried fruit. Most dried fruit is loaded with sugar so skip it and opt for a piece of fresh fruit instead.
  7. BYOT, bring your own tea. Teabags can go through security and are a great way to have a healthy drink while on the plane, just ask for hot water and use your high quality teabag from home.

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