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Jodi Jacobson/iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- Knee replacements are on the rise, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics says, and the people undergoing the surgery are getting younger.

According to data released on Wednesday, the rate of knee replacements increased for both men and women between 2000 and 2010. The rate of the surgery in men over the age of 45 increased by 86 percent in that time, while the rate in women of the same age jumped by 99 percent.

Women have long been more likely to have knee replacements -- the CDC says that 33 out of every 10,000 women over the age of 45 had the surgery in 2000, compared to 24.3 out of 10,000 men. In 2010, those figures reached 65.5 out of 10,000 women and 45.3 out of 10,000 men.

Perhaps just as notably, the average age of all knee replacement patients fell from 68.9 years old in 2000 to 66.2 in 2010.

The report does not offer reasons behind the increasing frequency of knee replacements, nor comment on the efficacy of the procedure.

Copyright © 2015, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


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Raphael Gaillarde/Getty Images(SAN FRANCISCO, Cali.) -- Researchers believe they have found the cause of a mysterious and fatal brain disease that leaves patients with symptom's similar to Parkinson's disease, including rigid muscles, tremors and low blood pressure.

Called Multiple System Atrophy (MSA), the disease is rare but devastating, affecting three out of every 100,000 people over the age of 50. Researchers have now uncovered that the disease is likely caused by infectious proteins similar to the ones that cause Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease, the human form of mad cow disease.

Those with the disease generally show symptoms in their 50s and their health rapidly declines in the subsequent 5ive to 10 years, with progressive loss of motor function, according to the National Institutes of Health.

In a new study published in the Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, researchers have found that tiny infectious proteins called prions are likely behind MSA. Prions are proteins that are folded abnormally and cause other proteins to similarly fold, which can have devastating consequences.

Researchers, led by Dr. Stanley Prusiner, director of the Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases at University of California San Francisco, examined the brains of 14 subjects who had been diagnosed with MSA.

They then used specimens from the brains and found that they could infect mice and other healthy cells with the deadly disease. The identification of this prion, called alpha-aynuclein, is the first new prion to be discovered in 50 years, researchers said.

Mark Zabel, associate director of the Prion Research Center at Colorado State University, said while the disease is transmissible it cannot cause an epidemic.

“The main we transmit the disease [in lab animals] is to stick them in the head with the needle, that doesn’t happen to often in human life or wildlife,” he explained.

Zabel, who was not involved in the study, said the mostly likely source of infection is in the clinic or operating room.

While all subjects developed the disease spontaneously, the study authors did caution that doctors should be particularly careful when administering “deep brain stimulation” because of the potential of infecting others with MSA. The authors explain that patients with MSA are often mistaken for Parkinson's disease patients, so in theory if they are given deep brain stimulation therapy, they could put other patients at risk if the surgical tools aren’t carefully decontaminated.

Previous studies found “prions bound to stainless steel wires” tightly even after a decontamination procedure, and “retained their ability to infect mice on brain implantation, as well as in cultures of susceptible cells," according to the paper.

Dr. Valerie Sim, an associate professor in the Neurology Division at the University of Alberta, said it’s not clear from the study whether the disease is easily transmissible, and despite the disease’s outcome, people should not be afraid of contracting MSA.

“Some of the message taken from this study is fear. It’s important to avoid fear,” said Sim, who was not involved in the study. “It’s important that there’s no proof of” human-to-human transmission.

The material was directly injected into the mouse’s brain to infect them, Sim said, noting that the study may have implications about the definition of what makes a prion, since they should be considered transmissible and that more study was needed.

Copyright © 2015, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


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iStock/Thinkstock(EL DORADO, Calif.) — A high school football player in California is hospitalized in critical condition, one of two teammates who suffered brain injuries during a Friday game.

Authorities say they are investigating whether drug use among players — particularly the prescription drug Adderall, used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD — may have played a role. The investigation includes a review of game footage and other matters, authorities said.

Union Mine High School students Nick Brown and Justin Schwartz had finished playing a junior varsity game against Foothill High School when teammates and onlookers noticed something wrong.

“[Brown] just wasn’t looking right,” Merrill said. “It looked like he was exhausted.”

The two teens lost consciousness and collapsed, and were rushed to hospitals. Schwartz was treated for a concussion and nerve injury before being released. He’s now recovering at home.

Brown, meanwhile, remains hospitalized in critical condition after undergoing emergency brain surgery. His family released a statement, acknowledging that he “suffered a high impact blow to the head that caused a subdural brain bleed.”

Authorities are investigating whether Adderall may have played a role, according to the El Dorado County Sheriff’s Department. While a fellow 17-year-old student was arrested for allegedly providing the drug to classmates, authorities say they have not connected the suspect to Brown and Schwartz’s injuries. The identity of the student facing charges has not been released.

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iStock/Thinkstock(ATLANTA) — Putting a new spin on looking “good for your age,” researchers at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have figured out a way to determine if your cardiovascular system is actually aging faster than the rest of you.

In a new study, CDC researchers found the hearts of U.S. adults are often much “older” than their chronological age.

Using data from the large and well-established Framingham Heart Study, researchers looked at information from 578,525 participants between the ages of 30 to 74 and found that men fared worse than women overall. On average, men had a predicted heart age of 7.8 years older than their chronological age and women had a heart age that was 5.4 years older, according to the study.

Researchers determined the “age” of the heart or cardiovascular system by examining each person’s risk profile. This includes if they smoke, their blood pressure, diabetes status and body mass index. A riskier profile meant an “older” heart.

“Too many U.S. adults have a heart age years older than their real age, increasing their risk of heart disease and stroke,” CDC Director Tom Frieden said. “Everybody deserves to be young — or at least not old — at heart.”

The study determined that an estimated 69 million American adults have hearts older than their chronological age.

This study found certain groups fared even worse, with hearts far older than their actual age. For African Americans, heart age for both men and women was an average of 11 years older than their chronological age. Additionally, if people had more education or household income, their heart age tended to “decrease” or become more in line with their chronological age.

In order to help the average citizen see their own heart “age,” the CDC worked with the Framingham Study and created the “heart calculator,” which can determine your cardiovascular age after assessing a few risk factors.

Dr. Sahil Parikh, a cardiologist at University Hospitals Case Medical Center, said he’s hopeful the new calculator will make it clear to patients how a few bad habits can have severe consequences on their health. He pointed out that doctors can currently calculate a patient's percentage risk for a cardiac event but that patients may not really understand the gravity of that risk percentage.

“If you tell a patient that your risk of having a cardiovascular [event] is 10 percent, their take-home is ‘Wow, there’s a 90 percent chance I’ll be fine,’” Parikh said. “We would consider 10 percent a high risk.”

Parikh said he’s hopeful that younger patients in their 40s will realize that their age does not protect them from severe events and that if they are overweight or smoking, they will realize their heart age might be far "older." Patients often do not believe they are at risk until they suffer a heart attack, stroke or other major cardiovascular event, he noted.

“I can tell you story after story of people who have a thunderclap [cardiac] event and it strikes them out of the blue,” Parikh said. “When you go back in retrospect, there are telltale signs. They did not recognize it or felt that it did not apply to them.”

Those with an older “heart age” should not be discouraged and should instead take steps to decrease their risk, such as losing weight, quitting smoking or taking blood pressure medication, Parikh said.

“You can always modify risk,” he said. "There are clearly therapies today that reduce incident of heart attack and reduce mortality of heart attack and stroke.”

If you want to find your own heart age you can check out the heart calculator here.

Copyright © 2015, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


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iStock/ThinkstockBy DR. JENNIFER ASHTON, ABC News Senior Medical Contributor

Talking to kids about their weight is no easy task and you don’t want to hurt their feelings. But it’s such an important conversation to have in order to help your children take control of their health as soon as possible.

Here are some tips on how to talk to them:

  • Tell your children that their health is at stake and you want to help them get better so they can live a healthy life.
  • Never, ever, criticize your children or make their appearance the focal point.
  • Lead by example. Make cooking healthy meals a game, take walks around the park together, or encourage them to join a sports team.
  • Lastly, let your children know you love them unconditionally. This can give your kids the confidence they need to live their best and healthiest lives.

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Courtesy of Kim and Fred Spratt(NEW YORK) — A New Jersey couple is stranded in Portugal after giving birth to their first child, caught between medical regulations, insurance costs and visa stipulations.

Doctors cleared Kim and Fred Spratt to travel in May, when Kim was six months pregnant with twins.

But one week into the vacation, Kim went into labor. The couple’s newborn son, Hudson, did not survive. Their daughter, Hayden, weighed 1 pound, 8 ounces at birth.

More than three months later, the family remains in Portugal, nearly 3,500 miles from home. Doctors say Hayden is now healthy enough to fly home, but not on a commercial fight. She needs a medically equipped plane, something the Spratts say their insurance carrier has refused to pay.

“We just want to have a normal life like any other parent has with their newborn,” Kim Spratt said.

The family’s insurer, Highmark Blue Cross Blue Shield, declined to comment on the case because of privacy laws.

The Spratts’ visa may only allow them to stay in the country for a few more weeks.

“They are at their wits end,” Kim Spratt's mother said. “They don’t know where else to turn.”

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Wavebreakmedia Ltd/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- Cigarette smoking among Americans has hit a historic low, according to preliminary data released by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics.

Through the first three months of 2015, the CDC estimates that 15.2 percent of American adults over the age of 18 are current smokers. For the purposes of the survey, current smokers were considered adults who had reported smoking more than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and now smoke every day or some days.

Figures for 2014 showed 16.8 percent of surveyed Americans were current smokers, continuing a downward trend. In 1997, 24.7 percent of American adults were considered current smokers. The percent of smokers has dropped every year since 2010.

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iStock/ThinkstockBy DR. JENNIFER ASHTON, ABC News Senior Medical Contributor

Are you still having nightmares? For about 10 percent of adults, they are a serious problem.

Studies in the field of sleep medicine have shown that having negative attitudes towards ourselves, being exhausted or fatigued, using sleeping pills and frequent heavy use of alcohol are all associated with nightmares.

If you’re experiencing frequent nightmares, talk to your doctor. If it’s from medication, you may be able to switch. If it’s caused by a mental health-related issue, talk with a mental health professional about therapy options.

Keep a regular sleep schedule, relieve stress with activities like yoga or meditation, and limit alcohol and nicotine to help make sure you get a good night's sleep, nightmare-free.

Copyright © 2015, ABC Radio. All rights reserved.


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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- Some patients relying on commercially available laboratory testing may be getting false indications that they may have contracted Lyme disease.

Lyme disease, a bacterial infection transmitted by tick bites in the northeastern U.S., often can mimic other diseases and can be an elusive diagnosis.

A study in CMAJ evaluated the accuracy of lab tests administered to Canadians who sent their blood to American labs and questions whether these tests may be causing more harm than they are help in finding a diagnosis.

The type of laboratory testing involved in the diagnosis of Lyme disease is known as a ‘Western Blot’ test. Researchers looked at 40 patients without Lyme disease and found that as many as 25 percent had a false positive result with this test.

The authors of this report concluded that commercial laboratory testing may have too low of a threshold for a positive test result – in other words, too many false positives.

While the treatment for Lyme disease is a simple course with an antibiotic, the researchers warn that a false-positive test result may be dangerous, saying “Mistakes in diagnosis can deprive patients of treatment specific to the true cause of their symptoms, and can result in prolonged therapy for a condition they do not have.”

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KTRK-TV(HOUSTON) -- The family of a 14-year-old athlete has confirmed that he died after being infected with a deadly amoeba that attacks the brain.

Michael Riley is believed to have contracted the amoeba during a swim in a fresh water lake, and his family posted a message on a Facebook page dedicated to supporting his health battle.

"Michael fought a courageous fight over the past week, allowing him to move on to be with the Lord for future heavenly tasks, a beautiful set of wings, and a pair of gold running shoes," the family's message reads.

"The tests tonight produced undesirable results which were coupled with the inability to function without support and proper blood flow to the brain," the statement says.

The so called "brain-eating amoeba" occur naturally in fresh water and can cause irreversible damage or death if they infect a person through the nose. Cases are rare, but deadly and only a handful of people are known to have survived the infection.

The Harris County Public Health & Environmental Services reported they were notified of a suspected amoeba infection Aug. 22, but could not confirm the teen was the patient due to privacy reasons.

Michael's family initially told ABC News affiliate KTRK-TV in Houston, Texas that they believed the teen contracted the dangerous infection on Aug. 13 during a trip to the lake with his teammates.

The teen, who qualified for the Junior Olympics three times, and was playing in the lake alongside his new high school track teammates.

About a week later, the teen reported a headache and fever and within 24 hours he had become confused and disoriented, according to the family's website. At the hospital, his doctors quickly suspected the rare naegleria fowleri amoeba.

"As Michael's work here is done, we will begin our work in honoring him by continuing with our search for a better understanding along with an awareness campaign in hopes of sparing others from the tremendous pain and agony that follows the onset of Naegleria fowleri and primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM)," the Riley family wrote in their statement on Facebook early Monday.

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iStock/Thinkstock(NEW YORK) -- Catch some winks, or catch a cold.

New research published in the journal SLEEP suggests that a good night’s sleep, while not likely the cure for the common cold, might just help you avoid one.

Researchers studied at a group of 164 people, assessing how many hours of sleep they got each night. They then exposed the study volunteers to rhinovirus, the bug known to cause the common cold.

Those sleeping fewer than five hours a night had a greater chance of developing the common cold than their better-rested counterparts who got at least six hours of sleep per night.

The findings support what scientists and doctors have long believed – that getting the right sleep helps your body keep its immune system at its best.

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iStock/Thinkstock(PHOENIX) -- A mother of four is at the center of a blistering social media movement dubbed #IStandWithCherish.

Cherish Peterson is under fire for leaving behind her 2-month-old son, Huxton, outside an Arizona supermarket Aug. 24. A photo snapped by a bystander shows the baby strapped into a carrier inside a shopping cart.

In an interview with station KPHO-TV in Phoenix, Peterson shares her side of the story.

“I got into my car and normally I put my cart away, but I didn’t need to because I parked at the front of the store and I never park there, and I drove away,” Peterson, of Gilbert, Arizona, told the station.

She describes the horrific moment she realized baby Huxton was not in the car when she got home 40 minutes later.

“As I was pulling into the garage, my 3-year-old goes, ‘Where’s baby Huxton?’” she explained. “His car seat is right behind me so I turned around and realized it was gone.”

An off-duty Phoenix police officer had spotted the infant and took him inside a nearby salon. Huxton was not injured, but Peterson now faces a misdemeanor count of child endangerment.

“I thought the whole time he was in my car,” the mother, now 28, said.

The incident has sparked a social media firestorm with many quick to condemn Peterson’s actions.

But just as fiercely, others are rushing to support Peterson on Twitter and a Facebook page attracting nearly 17,000 members. Supporters are sharing what they’re describing as their own “perfectly imperfect” parenting moments and calling for forgiveness.

“I have never met Cherish but the public punishment through social media has to be far more painful than any charges that might be brought against her. I forgive and so should we,” one user wrote on the page.

Her husband, Nathan, is also springing to her defense.

“We love our family and we love our children,” he said. “I married the best, in terms of the mother and wife Cherish is to me and our children.”

The Petersons admit they’re not perfect parents and they’ve learned this the hard way.

“I’m a good mom who made a horrible mistake,” she said, fighting back tears.

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iStock/Thinkstock(SAN QUENTIN, Calif.) — The California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, along with local and state health officials are investigating an outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease at San Quentin State Prison.

As of Sunday, officials confirmed there are six cases of the disease, which is a severe form of pneumonia, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Five of the affected inmates are currently being treated at outside hospitals. Another 51 inmates are currently under observation for respiratory illness.

Legionnaires’ is caused by bacteria found in both potable and non-potable water systems, and is “carried via aerosolized water, such as steam, mist and moisture,” the CDC said in a blog post. It can’t be transported between people and symptoms can appear two to 10 days after exposure.

While the investigation continues, the San Quentin prison has limited its use of water.

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ABC News(NEW YORK) — A 51-year-old mother with multiple sclerosis gave birth to her own granddaughter in North Dakota, acting as a surrogate for her daughter.

The pregnancy came with an unexpected and welcome side effect.

Mandy Stephens and her husband Jamie couldn’t wait to get pregnant after marrying in 2013, but they had trouble conceiving and opted for in vitro fertilization.

Stephens became pregnant, and the 20-week ultrasound looked perfect. But she subsequently went into early labor and lost the baby, which she named Theo.

“There’s so much excitement,” Stephens, 32, said. “You carry the baby for so long, and then it’s all ripped apart and taken away. Your whole world stops.”

Mandy’s mom, Sherri Dickson, felt the pain, too.

“Watching your child lose a child is the definition of sadness,” Dickson said. “I can’t describe it any other way. It breaks your heart.”

Because Stephens’ cervix opened early, doctors warned the couple that a premature birth could happen again, though there is a procedure that may allow women with cervical insufficiency to carry their own baby.

The couple considered different options. Adoption? A surrogate?

That’s when her mother stepped in.

“I decided that if they needed somebody to carry their child, I would volunteer,” Dickson said.

The decision was easy for Dickson, who, at 51, had three grown children of her own. But there could be complications because of her age and diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune disease that attacks the central nervous system.

“The disabling effects of the disease may make it physically difficult for the mother to carry a pregnancy,” according to Johns Hopkins Medicine. “Muscle weakness and coordination problems may increase the likelihood for falls.”

But the situation also came with a potential health benefit for Dickson, whose MS was in remission: Becoming pregnant might help keep it that way.

Researchers think that protective changes in the immune system during pregnancy keep the disease at bay.

Two attempts were made with in vitro fertilization, and by November of last year, Dickson was pregnant with her daughter and son-in-law’s baby.

“Pregnancy was easy,” Dickson said. “I was very fortunate … I was playing tennis a week before I delivered, and working out with my trainer, but the delivery at 51 was way harder than the delivery at 33 with my last baby.”

Mila was born four weeks ago.

“It’s indescribable,” Dickson said. “There are times I look at Mila and say, ‘We did that, you know?’ We gave her what she wants. Not that you ever make up for a baby you lost but you give someone that hope, you know?”

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iStock/Thinkstock(LONDON) -- Reduced-fat ice cream that doesn't melt? That's what British scientists are said to be working on.

A team of scientists from the University of Edinburgh and the University of Dundee said in a written statement that they have discovered a type of protein which could be used to create ice cream that is more resistant to melting.

"The protein binds together the air, fat and water in ice cream, creating a super-smooth consistency," the scientists said in the statement, enabling summer treats to keep frozen for longer in hot weather.

“We’re excited by the potential this new ingredient has for improving ice cream, both for consumers and for manufacturers," Professor Cait MacPhee, of the University of Edinburgh’s School of Physics and Astronomy, who led the project, said.

Researchers estimate that ice cream made with the naturally occurring protein, known as BslA, could be available within three to five years.

In addition, products manufactured with that protein would contain lower levels of saturated fat and fewer calories than those currently on sale.

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